martes, 22 de abril de 2008

Zarzuela en Venezuela

La Zarzuela tiene sus inicios en el siglo XVII, en la época de la Corte de Felipe IV. Lope de Vega, Calderón de la Barca, Carlos Patiño, Juan Hidalgo, entre otros, se reunían en el pabellón de caza del Palacio de la Zarzuela, a las afueras de Madrid, donde actualmente residen los reyes de España. Este género se diferencia de la ópera principalmente por que utiliza partes cantadas y dialogadas, en lugar de los recitativos, alternado con canciones, coro y danza, desarrollando temas tradicionales.

En el período romántico venezolano se inauguró el ya desaparecido Teatro Caracas (1854-1913). En este se llevaron a cabo las primeras representaciones de zarzuela en el país, a cargo de la Compañía Lírico Dramática de Saturnino Blen en 1864, quienes se estrenaron con la zarzuela Catalina de Rusia o La Estrella de Mar.

El 18 de agosto de 1866 se reinaugura el Teatro La Unión, con el nombre de Teatro de la Zarzuela (conocido también como Teatro Maderero), ofreciendo espectáculos de carácter popular especialmente recordados los nacimientos y jerusalenes. Ubicado en la esquina de Maderero, este recinto reabrió sus puertas con la zarzuela Las Hijas de Eva de Gaztambide. Un mes después se estreno la zarzuela Los Alemanes en Italia de José Angel Montero –autor de la “Virginia”, primera ópera venezolana-, siendo ésta la primera en su género ejecutada en Caracas.

La Zarzuela ocupo un lugar de preponderancia (al igual que la ópera) en el desarrollo musical del país presentando importantes compañías y cantantes del mundo en temporadas en los Teatro Municipal y Nacional de Caracas.

El Teatro Teresa Carreño ha presentado zarzuelas como La Chulapona y Don Gil de Alcala (1991), La Gran Vía (1993), Antología de la Zarzuela (1990-1994-2001) y Luisa Fernanda (2004).
© Centro Documental
Fabiana Sans Arcílagos
Investigadora


Texto publicado en el programa de mano de “La Leyenda del Beso” Marzo-2008

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